Qaamuuska ereyga Gemology

luul Abalone
Jawhar midab leh baroque soo saaray mollusk ah la cuni karo univalue taas oo uu leeyahay qolof-qaabeeya dheg qiimeeyeen ee ay dahaarka Alifana hooyo-of-luul. Kuwan waxaa laga helay America, New Zealand iyo Japan biyaha. Wax yar spheroid, ay inta badan simay iyo dhegta ama u qaabeysan iyo dhaqd-
nuugo
in kor loo qaado (tusaale ahaan, walax) ama in ay qaataan ama ay helaan tamar ka tamarta iftiimeen (tusaale ahaan, iftiinka)
spectrum nuugista
tilmaantii khadadka madow toosan, guutooyinkiisa, ama meelaha (nuugista ballaadhan), marka iftiinka arag oo la kala qaado ama ka muuqataa ka gemstone la kala firdhiyey galay qaybaha ay spectral iyo baaray iyadoo la isticmaalayo qalab sida spectroscope ah.
Adamantine
arki luster
Adularescence
isdiyaarintiisana buluug-cad ama caanno sifo (schiller) moonstone ah
Allochromatic
marka element guurka joogo oo keliya sida wax wasakh yar ee wax jawharad ah, maaddadu ay tahay allochromatic (allo = kale, chroma = color)
Alluvium
muddo guud ee caadi ahaan loo isticmaalo kayd qashinka dhagax weyn (kayd alluvial) oo laga qaado by Biyo Socda leh iyo hoos u dhigay in il, webiga, daad sariiraha Caraabaah ama u gudubno.
qaab
arki non-crystalline
Anisotropic
arki laab Refractive
Archimedes mabda '
Mabda 'Archimedes dhigayaa in marka jidhku la Hawiyaha ee dareeraha ah a, ka dibna ku riixdaan ka sii weynayd ee dareeraha on jidhku waa loo siman yahay si miisaan ee dareeraha ah ee ka barakacay guryahooda. (The go'an of cuf gaar ah by habka hydrostatic oo miisaankeedu yahay ku saleysan yahay mabda'a this)
dhagaxyo Artificial
nin-dhigay kiristaalo aan lahayn dhigiisa dabiiciga ah (tusaale, ka simulants diamond: titanate strontium iyo YAG)
daaweynta Artificial
horumarinta ee muuqaalka kore ee walax by kulaylinta, xayd, daahan, dahaadhida, cindiga ama laser-qodista
dhagaxyo way isu
jawharad kasta oo ka kooban labo ama ka badan oo qaybaha oo laga sii adkaynayo ama wada u dhisnayd si ay u sameeyaan dhagax hal
Asterism
asterism waa saamayn laga fekerayo ah, guud ahaan afar ama lix-rayed, ka fiiloyin waafaqsan ama godadka buunshada in dhagax ayaa jaray en cabochon la inclusions ee isku midka ah u janjeedha inay diyaarad-xidhkii
Aventurescence
milicsiga Spangled xoog iftiinka ka taarikada ama Duudduubyada macdanta kale waxaa ka mid ahaa in dhagax ah (tusaale ahaan, sida aan ka arki galaas aventurine, quartz aventurine, feldspar aventurine (sunstone))
Dhidibka dhabanada
mid ka mid ah xubno ka dhabanada, dhidibka ah dhabanada waa line ah khayaali ah iyada oo xarunta Quruurado ah, oo ku saabsan taas oo crystal ayaa la isku beddeli karaa si ay u soo bandhigaan muuqaalka isla jeer 2, 3, 4 ama 6 in hal wareeg dhamaystiran (ie , wajiga la mid degan meel la mid ah, in ka badan hal mar in wareeg dhamaystiran)
luul Baroque
magacaabi codsatay in luul, labada dabiiciga ah iyo cultured, khariidad ama cyst,
kuwaas oo aan joogto ahayn ee qaabka
Basalt
basalt, dhagax weyn igneous extrusive ugu badan, waa, dhagax madow ganaax-grained muhiimad ka kooban feldspar madow iyo pyroxene (leh ama aan lahayn olivine). Waxaa jira tiro ka mid ah noocyo kuwaas oo lagu tilmaamay inay ku dul duwanaansho in texture, qaab-dhismeedka iyo content macdanta ku xiran
dhagaxyo Biaxial
hababka orthorhombic, monoclinic iyo triclinic waxaa jira seddex faasas oo loo yaqaan 'crystal fails' oo dhererkoodu kala duwan yahay. Kala-sooc laba-laab ah ayaa ka dhici doona jihooyinka badankood, laakiin waxaa jiri doona laba faasas indhaha (jihooyinka hal-laabashada) oo ku kala duwan jihada nooc kasta oo jawharad kala duwan ah. macdanta ka tirsan nidaamyadan waxaa loo yaqaan 'biaxial'. (Nidaamka loo yaqaan 'orthorhombic system' faasaska indhaha ayaa si isku mid ah ugu janjeedha 'c' (mowduuc toosan oo mabda 'ah), halka monoclinic iyo triclinic uusan jirin xiriir toos ah oo ay la leeyihiin faasaska madadaalada.)
Birefringence
(Oo sidoo kale loo yaqaan refraction double / DR) birefringence waa xaddiga refraction double of gemstone anisotropic ah muujiyeen sida farqiga u dhexeeya indices Refractive at-soociddiisa oo ugu badnaan
luul Biwa
luul non-nucleated cultured (inta badan gadood ama baroque qaab ee Japan) saneysay agagaarka xeebaha Lake Biwa ee Japan. Jawhar waxaa koray in aleelada biyo macaan badan by galinta Goosimo yar oo go'iisii ​​galay jidhka mussel ah
iin
muddo guud ee cillad ah taas oo saameyn dusha sare ee jawharad ah. iin A waxaa inta badan keena falalka aadanaha, sidoo kale halka jawharad la jaray ama marka la xirto ee dahabka. Xagashada, godad, iyo qaadmay waa noocyada ugu badan ee iin
luul nabarrada
Jawhar taas oo lagu daboolay on hal dhinac oo kaliya lakabka nacreous oo koray badan irritant ah asalka ah ee xiriir la qolof mollusk ah. Marka luul sida waxaa bixiyay, degaanka kaas oo ahaa in xiriir la qolof ah waa u dhashay ee nacre. Sidaas dhinacan dhashay waxaa badanaa smoothed off oo qarsoon by goob
ciyaaryahan
ciyaaryahan waa tirada guud ee iftiinka gudaha ka muuqataa in lagu celiyaa isha ka gemstone ka. Haddii kale waxaa lagu sheegi karaa sida nuurka (nafta) ee gemstone ah sida uu go'aamiyey qaddarka iftiinka dib ugu isha muuqataa ka dambe ee ku saabsan oo dhagax ah
Brittleness
brittleness waxaa lagu qeexaa sida daciifnimo ah in gemstone ah oo inkastoo ay darantahay ingeega, ka dhigaysa in ay u nugul jab, dhaawaca (tusaale ahaan, kulaylka zircon daweeyey)
isha Cat ee
arki chatoyancy
Xarunta dhabanada
mid ka mid ah xubno ka dhabanada, xarun dhabanada joogo marka wajiga kasta oo Quruurado ah oo qumman waa baadinaayo soo horjeeda wejiga la mid ah dhinaca kale baraf (ie, wejigaaga kasta uu leeyahay wajiga kale oo la mid, oo iska soo horjeeda oo isku midka ah)
Chatoyancy
Saameyn milicsi oo ka timaadda ka-mid-noqoshada is-barbar socda ama (indhaha bisadda). Halbeegga iftiinka ayaa u muuqda xaglo qumman dhinaca jihada ka mid ahaanshaha waxaana si fiican loogu arkaa hal il oo dusha sare ah dhagxaan la jaray en cabochon
Chelsea Qubano midabka
qalab ka kooban tahay iskujir ah filtarrada, waxaa sidaas loo dhisay in ay u saamaxdo kaliya labo qaybood cidhiidhi ah spectrum in la arko waxa ay dhex maraan, oo cas moolka (690nm dhow) iyo cagaar huruud ah (u dhow 570nm). Waa waxtar leh in muujinaysa jiritaanka chrome ama Cobalt ee GEMS gaar ah, waayo, ogaanshaha ee (chrome) dheeh dhagaxyo iyo kala qalabka jawharad qaar ka imitations ay caadi. Xasuusin: Isticmaal calaamad digniin ah oo keliya. Caddaynta waa ku tiirsan baaritaano kale
Chromophore
(wakiilka midabaynta). Qaybta mekulka ee mas'uulka ka ah midabka isku dhafan. Waxay ku jirtaa sidii qayb muhiim ah oo ka kooban walxaha kiimikada ee dhagxaanta idiochromatic ama sida shil wasakh ah ee dhagxaanta allochromatic
Hufnaan
dheer isticmaalaa in lagu tilmaamo xorriyadda qaraabo ka iin kasta internai ama wax isdhaafin (inclusions) ee jawharad ah. Qeexidda sidoo kale laga yaabaa in la kordhiyay in ka mid ah oogada cilladaha (ceebaalowyo) marka fasalka la caddeeyo oo dhagax ah
guutooyin Color
guutooyinkiisa oo qiyaastii isku midka ah ee midabka arkay dushiisa of kiristaalo ama dhismeedka internai Dhagaxyo (muujinaysaa weji koritaanka sababa kala duwan ee la heli karo kiimikada, dareere, heerkulka, cadaadiska iyo arrimo kale)
Color ee GEMS
aragti muuqaal ah oo laga helayo qeybaha laydh cad lagu kala saari karo (casaan, oranjo, jaalle, cagaar, buluug, violet) iyo waliba dareenka guduudka oo aan laga helin qorraxda. Midabka waxaa lagu sifeeyaa midabka, dhererka iyo codka. Midabka jirka ee dhagaxa qaaliga ah waxaa laga soo dheegtay iftiinka lagu arko sidoo kale waxaa sabab u ah dhuuqista dherer dherer gaar ah oo iftiinka muuqda ah. Midabka sidoo kale waxaa sababi kara kala firidhsan, faragelinta nalka iyo nalka
xuduuddadhulka Color
xuduuddadhulka midab uu yeesho inta lagu guda jiro koritaanka baraf sabab u uruureen khilaafsan ee nijaasta ahaa. The kala duwanaanta ee midabka (guutooyin ama aag) waxaa caadi ahaan loo arkaa in ay raacaan Wajiyada crystal jira
xubno midabaynta
nuugista Selective iftiinka ay sabab u tahay jiritaanka xubno ka kala guurka (chrome, Cobalt, copper, vanadium, manganese, birta, nickel, titanium) dhagaxyo idiochromatic iyo allochromatic
Compact
is leeyahay macnaha la mid ah ballaaran oo si gaar ah u codsatay markii kiristaalo muujiyaan calaamad u lahayn ee Qurub dhismaha (tusaale ahaan, baaraha-grained Jade jadeite)
gemstone darka
arki gemstone shireen
luul Conch
luul pink: luul ka conch weyn helay, mollusk a univalve helay xeebaha ee Florida, layna of California iyo Mexico. luul Kuwani waa sida caadiga ah pink (orange casaan ama caddaan) midabka iyo waxaa lagu gartaa la'aan ah daahan nacreous
Conchoidal
arki jab
i xiriir tamorphic
recrystallization ee content macdanta dhagaxyada pre-jira ama meel u dhow aaga xiriir ah ay sabab u tahay jiritaanka magmas
mataanaha Contact
nooc ka mid ah u disto crystal kuwaas oo shakhsiyaad ay la xiriirtay ay weheliyaan diyaarad caadi ah (diyaarada mataanaha). Labada qaybo ka mid ah crystal sida waxaa sidaas la xiriira in haddii qayb ka mid ah waxaa lagu wareejiyo iyada oo 180 ° (markeeda kala bar a) oo ku saabsan dhidibka ah (dhidibka mataanaha) markaas labada toortaha dhigi lahaa qaabka crystal qofka. mataanaha xiriirka jirta laba nooc: xiriirka hal mataanaha-halkaasoo toortaha 2 Quruurado ah waa in si cagsi ah si haddii badh waa wareejiyo 180 ° saabsan diyaarada ee ku biiro, qaab crystal caadiga ah waa la helay, soo noqnoqda, oo mataano ah ama polysynthetic lammelar nooca disto crystal ka kooban taxane ah oo mataano xiriir inta badan ee taarikada aad u dhuuban. Kuwani waxaa lagu abaabulaa Jihaynta soo horjeeda in deriska degdeg ah ay (tusaale ahaan, sida laga helay corundum iyo feldspar). Eeg sidoo kale mataano interpenetrant
xagal Halis
xagal ee dhacdooyinka halkaas oo ray a iftiinka oo la safraya ka ah optically denser inay dhexdhexaad ka yar waxaa refracted at 90 ° si caadi ah (ie, waxa aanu micnahaa dusha sare ee labada warbaahinta ee xidhiidhka). Fiiro gaar ah: wax kasta oo kor u sii on xagal this ee dhacdooyinka keeni lahaa ray ah refracted inay dib u soo noqdaan galay dhexdhexaad ah ee asalka ah halkaas oo ay ku waari lahaa by sharciyada iyo digtoonaan (ie, waxaa lagu gebi ahaanba gudaha ka muuqataa lahaa.)
Cryptocrystalline
(Crypto = qarsoon). Term isticmaalaa in lagu tilmaamo wax ka kooban tiro wayn ee kiristaalo yar inta badan sub-cqaadir sameynta mass ah ishaysta. wadar ahaan labada lug waxa uu sub-cqaadir crystal muuqan karaan qaab inay isha oo qaawan
Crystal
crystal waa ah kiimikada uniform adag la amray in internai dhismeedka qaaradda iyo foomka dibadda laftarkeeda waxa ku diyaarad symmetrically diyaarin (flat) Wajigooda
Crystal foomka
foomka crystal ah waxay ka kooban tahay Og kuwa wejigooda kuwaas oo sidoo kale la xiriira faasas crystallographic (tusaale ahaan, Ahraamta, prism, pinacoid, qubbad)
Crystal caado
qaababka crystal (foomka, oo lagu daray sifooyinka dusha) taas oo inta badan ka dhacaan macdanta waxaa loo yaqaan caadooyinka crystal ay
inclusions Crystal
inclusions crystal waa la garan karo by ay geesood isagoo yara angular iyo geesaha xad toosan. geesaha sinnayn iyo foomamka wax yar soo koobay ayaa sidoo kale la kulmay ay sabab u nuugay inclusions ah. (Inclusions crystal inta badan muujiyaan ilaa in gargaarka ka dhanka ah asalka ciidankii markii viewed hoos Nuur darkfield ah. Waxay la baari karaa iyadoo la isticmaalayo polars gudbay.)
Crystal dhabanada
dhabanada crystal loola jeedaa hannaanka isku dheeli tiran ee qaab-dhismeedka qaaradda. Waa dhalmo saxda ah (muuqaalka celiyaan) wejiyadooduna mid ah crystal (geesaha, geesood) oo muujinaya heshiis ku amreen gudaha oo ah walaxda.
crystalline
wax crystalline by qeexidda waa macdanta adag oo udhigo, atamka ama u taagoo waxaa lagu abaabulaa in fashion ah habsami leh. In dhaqanka, ereyga waxaa badanaa loo isticmaalaa in lagu qeexo walxaha haysashada dhismeedka joogto ah iyo guryaha jiho laakiin daruuri ma aha qaab dibadda joomatari
faasas Crystallographic
kuwanu waa khadadka khayaali ah oo dhererkeedu yahay indefinite orodka iyada oo
crystal haboon in tilmaamaha qeexan gaar ah ee la xiriirta dhabanada ee baraf. Waxay midaysan ee xarunta of baraf barta la yiraahdo asal ahaan. (Waxay ka mid yihiin khadadka ee tixraaca ka la qiyaasi karin ku masaafo qaraabo iyo hawada Wajiyada kala duwan.)
luul Cultured
luul cultured yihiin qaababka Xiddig lfi lagana gebi ama qayb ahaan sababay
by fara gelin ku sameeyeen hay'adda aadanaha galay gudaha oo ka mid ah wax soo saar leh basaliga ah. Tani waxay khusaysaa luul cultured haddii leh ama aan lahayn xuduntii a
luul cyst
xabbad luul ah oo uu sameeyay meydka mollusk luul ah gudahood oo waxaa spheroid qaab
ka mid noqoshada Dendritic
buuxin sida geedka oo kale ah ama sida mooska oo kale oo dillaac ah (halkaas oo ay ku jiraan waxyaabo kala duwan oo laga yaabo in ay jebiyaan - caadi ahaan birta xabagta.)
Divitrify
si looga qaado dhalaalka dhalada iyo transluceny. (Marka laga hadlayo alaabada dhalada ah ee loo yaqaan meta meta - waa horumarinta kobcinta dhagxaanta)
Dichroscope
dichroscope la qalab kaas oo u ogolaanaya saamaynta pleochroic ee macdanta jawharad in la arkay, laba midabada ama midabo kala midabka waqti
Diffraction
diffraction iftiinka waa nooc khaas ah ee faragelinta iftiinka kaas oo iftiin cad waxaa loo jebiyo (kala) galay midabada ay ka kooban sida nuurka oo kale iyada oo loo marayo aperture yar maraa ama markii hirarkeedu iftiin noqotay laayeen u dhexeeya walxaha duwan bildayaha (tusaale, ka play midabka arkay in opalka qaali ah)
firidhsan
kala firidhku waa kala soocidda (kala-goynta) iftiinka cad ee u dhexeeya midabada muuqaalka ah iyadoo la sifeynayo (foorarsiga iftiinka) maaddaama nalku ka gudbayo laba dusha oo u janjeera. Dhagxaanta waxaa badanaa loo yaqaan 'dab'
Refractive Double
anisotropic - macdanta soo bandhigeysa astaamaha guryaha indhaha (tusaale, dhagaxyada ku jira tetragonal, trigxxxonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic iyo triclinic systems)
spectrum electromagnetic
dheer loo isticmaalo kala duwan oo dhan wavelengths tamarta iftiimeen ka hirarka radio dheer iyada oo wavelengths runtan aad u gaaban
Qaybaha dhabanada
canaasiirta dhabanada waa caadadii classifi-waxbarashada ee toddoba nidaamka crystal. Waxay ku jira hindisooyin inay naga awood ay u kala soocaan oo sharaxaad ka noocyada kala duwan ee qaabka crystal. Waxaa ka mid ah diyaarad dhabanada, dhidibka ah dhabanada iyo xarun dhabanada (eeg qeexidda hoos liiska shakhsiga)
Eluvium
kayd eluvial ka kooban yihiin burburka dhagax weyn (quruurux) kaas oo lagu wiiqay (weathered baxay) ka dhagax weyn ciidanka iyo weli in situ (meel) aan maray gaadiidka webiyada
dhaadheer
in la siiyo fasax ama (tusaale ahaan, iftiinka)
Enantiomorphism
dhismeedka kelli ah quartz oo siinaysaa asaasmeen gacanta koritaanka aarayo midig iyo bidix ee quartz, iyo in ay kala fogaansho wareeg ah. (Fiiro gaar ah: meelaynta The wejiyadooduna yar auxillary kuwaas oo si joogto ah la arki foomka caawimo dibadeed loo aqoonsado isla midig ama bidix ee baraf)
Enhancement
arki daaweynta aan dabiici ahayn
inclusions Epigenetic
boostada inclusions casriga ah. Kuwa dhacay ka dib markii formation of crystal ciidanka. Waxaa ka mid ah noocyada kala duwan ee dillaacyada iyo inclusions macdanta la aasaasay by exsolution (tusaale ahaan, xariir rutile in corundum); in aan ku xuso saliid / opticon, iwm, haraadiga in jab ka buuxsamay GEMS.
Exsolved
unmixing ee macdanta. Qaar ka mid ah Lab macdanta sameeyaan xal adag at heerkulka sare oo ay noqoto deganayn at heerkulka hoose. Marka si tartiib ah ku qaboojiyo mid macdanta laga yaabaa in lagu qasbo marka qaab-dhismeedka ciidanka qaboobeyso iyo qandaraasyada, macno ahaan Tuujiya nijaasta galay meelaha bannaan halkaas oo ay crystallize (tusaale ahaan, cirbad rutile (Xariir) oo corundum)
eynu
eynu waa uu maqan yahay iftiinka isha laabtay. Taasina waxay keentaa in dhagax ay u muuqdaan gudcur ah, iyo ka dhiman billiance
magacyada khuseeya
GEMS weji leeyihiin taaj oo kale ah (qayb top-xidhka), miis (khuseeya xarunta taajkii ka), dhex-xidh (qaybta oo dhagax ah oo la wareega ugu weyn ama xuduud dibadda), iyo taambuuggiisa ah (qaybta hoose ee hoos ku-xidhkii ). All ku saabsan oo kale duwanaan karaan in ay size, inta jeer ama xitaa jiritaanka ku xiran qaab goynta loo isticmaalo. Tusaale ahaan, in tallaabo-jaray (cut sumurud) caadiga ah dhagaxyo culet (khuseeya yar salka taambuuggiisa ah) waxaa la bedelay line ay guushu ku ah (line dheer kordhin weheliyaan xarunta of hoose ee taambuuggiisa ah)
ka mid noqoshada baal
Diyaarad ka mid ah godadka daqiiqo taas oo sida caadiga ah u muuqan, sida dad badan oo la qaybaha ul-sida wanaagsan ee intercommunicating channels (sida caadiga ah dareere ka buuxsami).
buunshada
magaca la siiyaa qalab halkaas oo kiristaalo dastuurka waa irbad-qaabeeya (tusaale ahaan, asbestos, Jade nephrite)
inclusions faraha
kuwaas oo sidoo kale laga yaabaa in laga garan karo sida baalal caafimaad iyo waxay ka kooban yihiin interconnecting shabakadaha ee channels dareere-buuxiyey oo dhibco u eg faraha ah. Sida caadiga ah natiijada xal macdanta si tartiib tartiib ah dabaqii labaad galay a crack pre-jira in crystal horeba sameeyay, iyo Waasac ah ku bogsiinaya. Xaaladda kale ee ay muuqaalada sida dhici karaa waa inta lagu jiro daaweynta kulaylka kulaylka. Faraha waa wax caadi ah in loola dhaqmo luul
Finish
dhameysatay jeedaa tayo faceting ee jawharad ah oo la xukumo by heerka uu iftiimo, joogto, iyo flatness ee khuseeya kasta
Fluorescence
fluorescence shahwaddiisu iftiinka arki karo by dhagaxyo in la kulantay radiations arki karo ama aan la arki karin ee Milanello gaaban (tamar sare)
jab
jab waa chip ah aan joogto ahayn ama fasax in dhagax
Gem
dhagax qaali ah oo cayn kasta oo, la gooyaa oo safeeyey, waayo, wax sharraxsan, (ahaaba waa laga reebo caan ah si looga baahan yahay dambe). jawharad A by qeexidda waa mid ka mid ah in uu leeyahay beauty, cimri dherer iyo failed
Glass
galaas dheer waxaa laga codsadaa in walxaha kuwaas oo abuuray by ah barafku iyo qaboojinta si degdeg ah walxaha macdanta, taasoo keentay in formation of wax qaab. Glass noqon kartaa macmal ah (samee, mararka qaarkood loo yaqaan, Jinka) ama ka badan si dhif ah, tusaale ahaan dabiiciga ah, obsidian (galaas Kobenhagen), tektites (malaynayo in ay wax soo saarka sayrin meteoric)
dhagax adag
dhagax adag yahay midab, dhagax iftiin dhab-grained igneous adigoo ka kooban inta badan ah quartz, feldspar iyo Miikaa
mardinta Growth
guutooyin fududee iyo madow ee khadadka toosan at xaglo in ay raacaan hannaanka dhismaha ee macdanta ah
Caadada
qaabka dabeecad taas oo macdanta ah badanaa waxay ku dhacdaa. Caadada ma aha oo kaliya ka mid ah foomka dibadda caadi qaatay macdanta, laakiin sidoo kale saamayn caadiga ah dusha iyo sidoo
Hackly
arki jab
HALO noqoshada
ka mid noqoshada crystal hareereysan crack stress ah (s). Waxa kale oo u ekaan karaan sida balanbaalis leh laba baal ka imaanaya crystal ka mid ahaa (oo sida caadiga ah waa zircon)
darantahay ingeega,
adkaanta waa awoodda macdantu leedahay inay iska caabbiso xoqida (abrasion). Sidoo kale eeg miisaanka Moh
Wanaajinta dildilaaca
bogsiiyey dildilaaca (dildilaaca ama faraqa udhexeeya) halkaas oo dareere ah galay nasashada iyo madarad oo dib ugu soo wada koray. Inta badan qaybo ka mid ah dheecaanka ku xanibmeen ee godadka iyo channels keenaya feathery ama faraha u eg qaabka (oo mararka qaarkood bir-wasakheeyey)
cado
hue waxaa loola jeedaa magaca midabka laftiisa: dareenka muuqaalka saafiga ah ee casaanka, oranjiga, jaallaha ah, cagaar, buluug, buluug ah iyo kala duwanaanshaha kuwan Hue sidoo kale waxaa loola jeedaa dareenka guduudka (u dhexeeya casaanka iyo violet), oo aan laga helin qorraxda
Hydrothermal
dhagaxyada jideeyey, sida caadiga ah ee marxaladaha ugu dambeeya ee xoojinta igneous ka magma hodan ku ah biyaha iyo waxyaabaha kale ee kacsan. The xididdada hydrothermal ee macdanta xal hodan filter dhex dhimman iyo dillaacyada in dhagaxyada ku aasan iyo foomka crystal godadka damacsan in dhagaxa
Idiochromatic
marka element guurka waa dastuurka muhiim ah in wax jawharad ah, wax jawharad waa idiochromatic (idio = is, chroma = color)
cell Immersion
cell muraayad yar oo ay ku jiraan dareere ku haboon. Mabda 'ka danbeeya isticmaalaya gacanta bilowga ah waa in index ka Refractive ee dareeraha ah waa in la dhagaxa, ka fudud waxa ay noqon doontaa si aad u aragto galay dhagaxa. Ku dhawaad ​​kasta oo dareere midab, xataa biyo, jari doonaa milicsiga dusha, oo waxaad ka samaysaa arkaysid inclusions fududdahay
In situ
wax kala kulantay booska halkaas oo ay markii hore la sameeyey ama shubo ayaa la sheegay in lagu helay in situ (macno ahaan meel)
Inclusion
muddo guud ee iin ama wax isdhaafin gudahood jawharad ah. Inclusions loo qaybin karaa saddex nooc oo kala duwan: adag-crystalline labada (tusaale ahaan, zircon in safayr) ama non-crystalline (tusaale ahaan, quraarad dabiiciga ah ee peridot) waa u suurtoobaan. Suuska kuwaasu waxay sameyn karaan inta lagu guda jiro koritaanka GEMS ciidanka (inclusions hoose), ama ka dib (inclusions sare). nooca Ama laga yaabaa in lagu buuxsamay isku darka wax kasta oo dareere ah, gaaska iyo ama adag. Kuwa leh laba ama wax ka badan yihiin waji yaqaan multiphase. xuduuddadhulka Growth ifafaale-midabka iyo disto yihiin labada tusaale oo ifafaale koritaanka
infrared
hab infrared hoos cas oo kala duwan this ee shucaaca bilaabmaa wavelengths in mudo aan ka badnayn 700nm iftiinka casaan yihiin. shucaaca infrared waxaa guud ahaan loo yaqaan kulayl sababta oo ah waxay soo saartaa dareen ah diirimaad markii uu laayo our U gudub
Fara-
halkaas oo labada rays ku safraya waddada isku mid ah, laakiin ka mid ah wajiga (talaabo), wadajir faragelin mid kale keenaya labada eynu guud ee iftiinka ama ku-Lagaga pre mid ama in ka badan midabyada
tirooyinka Fara
kuwanu waa saamaynta indhaha arkay markii macdanta Refractive double loo arko iyada oo wejigooda isku midka ah ee ku jirase aad is iftiinka kala fog. Waxay awoodi macluumaad waxtar leh oo ku saabsan dabeecadda indhaha oo dhagax ah
mataano Interpenetrant
nooc ka mid ah u disto crystal taas oo laba qof ayaa si wada koray in ay u muuqdaan in ay ku daalaeday mid kale (oo inta badan soo saara cross ama dhagaxyo xiddiga)
Iridescence
iridescence ama play midabka qeexayaa midabka ama taxane ah midabo kala soo saaray faragelinta ama diffraction marka iftiinka ka muuqataa mid ka filimada khafiif ah ama ka dhismeedka gaar opalka qaali ah
bedelka Isomorphous
bedelay mid ka mid element kiimiko kale oo valency isla Halabuurka kiimikada. Tani waxa ay keentey in kala duwanaansho ballaaran ee guryaha jirka ka mid ah xubnaha taxanaha ah. Valency: dabiiciga ah kiimikada la mid ah oo gacan Madbacada qaranka
Isotropic
arki waallayn Refractive
Keshi luul cultured
si dabiici ah u dhaca luul biyo macaan oo aan nukliyeer ahayn oo ku samaysma jumlad marka lagu celiyo biyaha ka dib marka laga saaro dalag luul luqadaysan oo aan nukliyeer ahayn. Kuwani waa inaan lagu qaldin pearis abuurka badda oo badanaa aad u yar. Biyaha macaan ee `` keshi '' waxaa kaliya loogu yeeraa maxaa yeelay iyaguna sidoo kale kama koraan nukleus macmal ah. Mararka qaarkood waxaa loo yaqaan luul 'seedless' si ay u kala soocaan la non-nucleated. Sidoo kale eeg luul Biwa
luul Keshi (badda)
Jabaanku waxay ugu yeeraan luul abuur 'keshi' (poppies). Ururku halkan wuxuu udhaxeeyaa cabirka yar ee iniinyaha iniinyaha iyo luul aad uyar oo dabiici ah
Konoscope
polariscope ah rakibay gelis si xoog leh is-kaas ka caawisaa fududeeyo daawashada ee tirooyinka faragelinta
inclusions Lamellae
keena disto polysynthetic. muuqan karaa sida daahyada ama hufan kalluunka-line. Waxay sidoo kale u muuqan kara in ay la kulmaan in xaglo (tusaale ahaan, in corundum meesha tilmaamaha kulmi)
carradu Lateritic
wax dhulka (ka kooban jajabkii ayaa dhagaxayga weyn iyo Dhirta) oo ugu horayn waxa ka soo jeeda basait giirte (dhagax ganaax grained madow Kobenhagen hodan ku ah birta iyo magnesium, taas oo ah mid aad u furan saamaynta cimilada kiimikada cimilada kulaylaha ah)
Luminescence
ereyga guud ee bixinta iftiinka 'qabow' ee muuqda walax marka la helo tamar siyaado ah qaab ama qaab kale. Shanta mabaadi'da ifafaalaha ifka waa: chemi-luminescence (natiijada isbadelka kiimikada), tribo-luminescence (soo saaray khilaaf), thermo-luminescence (soo saaray kuleylka), photo¬luminescence (soo saaray shucaac muuqda ama aan la arki karin ee tamar sare / gaaban dhererka dhererka) iyo cathodoluminescence (natiijooyinka ka soo baxa kicinta leh dogob elektaroonig ah oo ku jira qolka faaruqinta)
luster
luster waa tirada iyo tayada nuurka ayaa ka muuqataa ka dusha sare ee dhagaxa. Shuruudaha soo socda ayaa loo isticmaalaa in lagu tilmaamo lusters gemstone: macdan: luster sare muujiyay macdanta macdan Doolaal. adamantine: reflectivity dusha sare. hallawda: luster galaas-sida caadiga ah ee aqlabiyadda ah ee GEMS. resinous: luster caadiga ah ee Beeyada (jilicsan la hooseeyo RI). waxy: ku dhowaad dusha matte (mararka qaarkood loo yaqaan dufan). dufan, wax yar saliid raadinaya keentay ka jejebinta iftiinka by dusha microscopically xunxunna. Xiddig lfi lagana: luster of luul / luul ah hooyo-of-. sulub: luster buunshada Xariir
Mabe (cultured) luul
luul fin cultured kooban, taas oo xuduntii asalka ah ayaa laga saaray waxaana lagu bedelay kuusha yar ee sii adkaynayo, iyo cad Xamar-qaabeeya ah hooyo of-luul negaanaya salkeeda si ay u dedaan meesha ka dhiman nacre
Magma
shubay (dareere) dhagax weyn
malleable
hab malleable isagoo awood u leh in la kordhiyay ama qaabeeya by garaaceen la dubbe ama ay cadaadis of rollers
Man-dhigay
wax soo saarka nin-dhigay by qeexidda yahay mid ayaa ku dhexsameeysmo shaybaar. (Si synthesize waa in la isugu geeyo ama xubno ka soo galay oo dhan adag). natiijada dhamaadka waxay noqon kartaa gemstone a dardaro (ie, mid ka mid ah in uu leeyahay dhigiisa dabiici ah) ama gemstone macmal ah (ie, mid aan lahayn dhigiisa dabiiciga ah)
ballaaran
dheer isticmaalaa in lagu tilmaamo wax taas oo uu leeyahay qaab-dhismeedka la hubo internai Quruurado ah, laakiin taas ma muujiyaan foomka joomatari dibadda. Tani waxay ka kooban karaan cutubyo ka mid ah (tusaale ahaan, u kacay quartz) ama ka badan crystal (tusaale ahaan, jadeite)
Mettalic
arki luster
Metamict
muddada loo isticmaalo wax taas oo uu soo gaaray la jabsaday hoos uga crystalline ah in dawlad qayb qaab; caadiga ah ee ay ku jirto macdanta qalabka shucaaca (tusaale ahaan, nooca yar yahay zircon)
dhagaxyada Metamorphic
metamorphic (macno ahaan, beddeleen qaab) dhagaxyada loo sameeyay ka dhagaxyada pre-jira ugu horrayn by tallaabada of cadaadis, kulaylka iyo / ama hordhaca ah ee walxaha kiimikada cusub
carat ton (CT)
hal mitir carat = shan meelood meel garaam (0.20gr) ama 200 milligram (mg). Carat metric waa halbeega miisaanka dhagxaanta dhagaxaanta iyo luul dhaqameed. Miisaanka waxaa lagu muujiyey laba meelood jajab tobanle jajab tobanlaha badiyaa si dabacsan ayaa loo yaqaan 'dhibco', ie, 1 metric carat = 100 dhibcood
microscope
qalab indhaha ka kooban tahay iskujir ah lenses oo soo saarta image a weyneeyey shay. Qaar ka mid ah isticmaalka more muhiim ah oo weyneeyey, waxbarasho noqoshada (dabiiciga vs. nin-dhigay, mode of formation koritaanka / crystal); Baaritaanka dusha (tayada cut (dhabanada), dhalaalin (shuruudaha ku saabsan, firemarks), ogaanshaha dhagaxyo farcan, aqoonsiga ee daaweynta aan dabiici ahayn, nuglaanta ogaado in waxyeello (tusaale ahaan, jiritaanka jab iyo / ama cholesterol), ogaan laban laabmay (SR vs .DR, sidoo kale waxay muujin kartaa qadarka of birefringence)
Macdanta
macdanta ah waa dabiici dhaca walax imanba isagoo Halabuurka kiimikada ah iyo guryaha jirka kuwaas oo si joogto ah ilaa xad cidhiidhi ah. Its qaab-dhismeedka crystalline sida caadiga ah waa
iftiinka Monochromatic
iftiinka monochromatic waa fudud yahay mid Milanello oo kaliya. Iftiinka heerka huruud monochromatic loo isticmaalo cabbirka Refractometer ka qayib laambad sodium ciiryaamo. Tani dhab ahaantii ka kooban yahay laba khadadka hawada aad u dhow u dhaxeyso, kuwaas oo qiimo hoose waa 589.3nm
inclusions Multiphase
inclusions in ku jiri kara dareere iyo gaaska iyo / ama kiristaalo
Nacre
dheecaan uu soo saaray go 'ee basaliga ah qaar ka mid ah kuwaas oo foomamka lakabyada iridescent labadaba luul ah iyo dusha sare ee gudaha qolof mollusk hooyada-of-luul. Nacre ka kooban carbonate crystalline la shiday oo wax organic yeedhay conchiolin ah
Namometers (nm)
unit of cabbirka ee wavelengths gaaban ee spectrum ee electromagnetic (tamarta iftiimeen). 1 nanometer = 1 millioneth qayb ka mid ah millimeter ah (1 / 1,000,000 nm) tusaale, iftiin muuqda dhaco inta u dhaxaysa 700nm (casaan) iyo 400nm (buluug)
cut Native
dheer loo isticmaalo qaab ah cut doortay miisaan badnaan haynta. Kuwani dhagax qoto dheer la taambuug weyn oo inta badan u baahan
recutting inay gaadhaan Joogaba wanaagsan
crystal xun
godadka gudahood jawharad ah isagoo qaab crystalline ah. godadka Intaasu waa intii laga abuuray markii meelaha qaar koray at heerka ka dhaqso badan meelaha kale, sameynta iyo lifaqaya bannaan ama meesha noqoshada crystal asalka ah ayaa la kala diri baxay (kiristaalo xun inta badan muuqan xumbo ciidankooda hoos Nuur darkfield)
ka mid noqoshada xun
ka mid noqoshada xun waxaa laga yaabaa in gaaska ama dareere ka buuxsami ama ku jira ka mid noqoshada yar oo adag (eeg crystal ayaa sidoo kale negative)
reading xun
haddii dhagaxa hoos imtixaanka on refractometer uu R.1 ah kor ku xusan kala duwan ee qalabka, ma ku laayeen hooskii waxaa loo arki doonaa (in dareeraha xiriir ah marka laga reebo)
Non-crystalline
macdanta iyo qalabka kale ee la sheegay in ay noqon non-crystalline ama qaab (macno ahaan, qaab lahayn) marka ay Jack dhisme habsami internai qaaradda iyo muuqaalka ah dibadda geometrically joogto ah (tusaale ahaan, walxaha macdanta ah, opalka iyo dhalooyinka, sidoo kale qalabka organic)
iftiinka Non-cad
iftiinka non-cad (ie, midab) waxaa lagu tilmaamay in shuruudaha ay cado (ie, midabka ah ee ay Milanello pre-adag), robab (qoto dheer ama xoog midabka adag) oo midab (hadh-light in madow)
Normal
ee optics xaglo Og waa qiyaas ka caadiga ah, line ah khayaali ah barbaro xagal quman (dhibic 90 meesha ray duqeeyo dushiisa oo aan ka dusha laftiisa
dhidibka optic
jihada a of refraction hal gudahood crystal ah haddii kale laab Refractive waxaa loo yaqaan dhidibka ah optic
qof optic
arko nooca optic
gudbikaraa tiradaasi Optic
gudbikaraa galaas rakibay in ul gaaban oo u dhaqmo sida muraayadda isu keenida si ay u caawiyaan qaabka faragelinta niyadda arkay taxey optic in wax anisotropic a
dabeecadda optic
dabeecadda optic ee macdanta ah, macdanta kala qaybsan yihiin uniaxial, biaxial iyo isotropic (qof optic). macdanta Uniaxial iyo biaxial waxaa sii kala qaybsanyihiin kuwa kuwaas oo optically togan iyo kuwa taban oo waa optically (calaamad optic)
optic calaamad
arko nooca optic
cufnaanta indhaha
cufnaanta indhaha waa hanti adag oo laftiisa demonstates in gaabis hoos iftiinka. (Sidoo kale refraction arkaan)
waxyaabaha Organic
alaabta organic waa kuwa alaabta soo saaray waxqabadka ee noolaha
Orient (of luul ah)
isdiyaarintiisana dusha iridescent of luul ah jawharad iyo hooyaday-of-luul. Waxaa keena faragelinta iftiinka ee filimada khafiif ah (u tumeen sidii caleemo khafiif ah lakabka nacreous) iyo diffraction ka cidhifyada ganaax of taarikada ah
luul Oriental
isticmaalka xilli la xadiday in ku tilmaamay luul dabiiciga ah laga helo ee basaliga ah biyo sait ee Gulf reer Faaris ahaa. Si kastaba ha ahaatee, waxa uu ahaa caadadii ganacsiga guud fasalka iyo harooyinka ayaa Og luul dabiiciga ah sida bariga
tagii
tagii waa dillaacin a dhacda weheliyaan diyaarad daciifnimo, halkii ay weheliyaan diyaarado la siman in ay wejigooda crystal, ama ay suuragal tahay
crystal ayaa wajahaya, sida in cholesterol (waxaa sidoo kale loo yaqaan cholesterol been ah)
hadhuudh Pearl
hadhuudh ahaaba waa unit caadiga ah ee miisaankeedu yahay luul hadhuudh 1 = 0.25 carat (1 CT = 4grains)
Jawhar
Jawhar waa qaababka dabiiciga ah qarisay filaan ah oo aan gargaarka ee hay'ad kasta aadanaha, in arrimaha gudaha ee basaliga ah. Waxay ka kooban yihiin walax ah organic (scleroprotein conchiolin la odhan jiray) oo ka mid ah calcium carbonate (sida caadiga ah ee foomka of aragonite) qabanqaabiyaa layers-gashan, daahii dibadda ee ku jira inta badan nacreous
Xiddig lfi
arki luster
Pegmatites
dhagaxayga weyn igneous faa'iido u qalafsan oo inta badan ka kooban macdanta dhif ah, oo ay ku jiraan kiristaalo badan oo dhagaxyo ah (tusaale ahaan, ha ahaado berullos, chrysoberyl, feldspar, quartz, spessartite Garnet)
Phosphorescence
phosphorescence waa in saamayn dib fluorescence (ie, waa afterglow ah). Waxaa la shahwaddiisu ku sii iftiinka muuqda ka dib markii isha of shucaaca tamar uu joogsaday
Photoluminescence
photoluminescence waa magac guud oo loogu talagalay fluorescence iyo phosphorescence. Waa saamaynta muujiyey by qalabka qaar ka mid ah soo saara iftiinka muuqda dul loo bandhigi shucaaca Milanello gaaban (tusaale, radiations electromagnetic ee la arki karo (buluug) oo qayb ka, ultraviolet iyo x-ray ee fowdada)
tilmaamaysaa
yaryar helay sida inclusions. Marka ay joogaan in tiro badan ay la tilmaamay waxaa laga yaabaa in sida daruur iyo hufnaan ee dhagaxa lagu daciif laga yaabaa in
kayd Placer
kayd placer ka kooban yihiin uruureen dusha of macdanta qiimo of cuf sare gaar ah (oo cimri dherer) kuwaas oo la aasaasay by cimilada dhagaxa waalidka iyo, kiisaska intooda badan, markii danbe la qaadi by il ama tallaabo la ruxruxo
Diyaarad dhabanada
mid ka mid ah xubno ka dhabanada, diyaarad dhabanada waa diyaarad ah khayaali ah oo kala qaybinaya jirka ah laba qaybood oo qayb walba si muuqata (muraayad) image ee qaybta kale (tusaale ahaan, qayb kasta waa dhigiisa-bedelka saxda ah ee kale)
bacyaal
eraybixinta guud ee tiro ka mid ah nin-dhigay walxaha organic (sida caadiga ah oo qoryshaynaya cusbi ku salaysan a) kaas oo lagu extruded karo ama doorsoon by kulaylka iyo / ama cadaadis
Play midabka
play dheer ee midabka qeexayaa taxanaha ah ee midabada arkay markii iftiinka ka muuqataa ka filimada khafiif ah ama ka dhismeedka keli daaqaddii-sida opalka qaali ah. Waxaa la soo saaray by diffraction (ilaa markii waagu iftiinka cad galay midabada ay ka kooban sida nuurka oo kale iyada oo loo marayo aperture yar maraa) taas oo ah qaab gaar ah faragelinta iftiinka
Pleochroism
pleochroism (macno ahaan, midab badan) waa erayga guud ahaan loo isticmaalaa in lagu qeexo midabada jiho oo kala duwan, kuwaas oo loo arki karaa in dhagaxyo leh midab gaar ah in kala jabeen iftiinka (ie, waxaa laab bildayaha) ay sabab u tahay in ay qaab-dhismeedka crystal gudaha. Waxaa ka mid ah dichroism (laba midab leh) iyo trichroism (saddex midab)
Polariscope
polariscope waa qalab ka kooban laba cutub soo saarka ee diyaarad fog iftiinka diyaarin la-yada a qoqobada u dhaxeeya. Imtixaanada qalab oo keliya in ama aan wax Kali ama laab Refractive waa
reactions Polariscope
Kali-Refractive wax weli mugdi ah oo dhan 360 a ° jeedo. Haddii wax ka yar yahay cadaadis internai waxay muujin kartaa anomalous (been ah) refraction double (ADR), sida caadiga ah ee foomka of guutooyin galgaloolan ama sharooto aan joogto ahayn. Double Refractive-dhagaxyo ka jaray hal crystal ah leeyihiin afar boos oo iftiinka iyo afar boos oo ah madow. celceliyo crystalline ama wax loola DR ka mid muuqan kara iftiin Og dhan 360 a ° jeedo. tiradaasi-in Faragelin ay dhacdo wax DR, haddii xaalada ay tahay mid sax ah oo tiradaasi faragelinta la xusay, waxaa kale oo suuragal ah si loo ogaado in dhagax waa uniaxial ama biaxial. (Calaamad-mar optic helay tirada faragelin ah, waa markaas suurto gal ah si loo ogaado in dhagax waa togan ama taban la gargaarka ee
taarikada siyaada si gaar ah bixisey ujeedadaas)
Polycrystalline
macdanta, kuwaas oo isku celceliyo ee kiristaalo yar yihiin yaqaan polycrystalline. Kuwani kiristaalo yar lagu imtixaamaa karaa iyadoo la isticmaalayo weyneeyey, oo mararka qaarkood by isha oo keliya (tusaale ahaan, ku dhowaad Jade jadeite Og)
mataano Polysynthetic
arki mataano lammelar
Potch (opalka badan)
wax caanno ka dhiman play midabka, ka kooban dhinacyo silica of size qummanaynu oon ku keenaya nuurka in la kala firdheen halkii badan diffracted
inclusions Protogenetic
Ka-mid ahaanshaha horay u jiray: kuwii joogay kahor meeraha martida loo yahay inay bilaabaan inay sameystaan ​​oo ay laquuqaan 'diyaar loo sameeyay' qeybta dambe (tusaale ahaan, walxaha adag iyo kiristaalo yaryar. qaabdhismeed
Pseudomorph
pseudomorph (qaab been ah) waa macdan qaadata qaab (qaab) macdan kale (ama walxo dabiici ah) kuleylka iyo / ama cadaadiska ama geedi socodka kiimikada awgood, tusaale, isha shabeelka (bedelka quartz ee crocidolite, macdanta asbestos); agate alwaax (bedelka quartz ee qoryaha)
Milicsi
milicsigu waa ku soo noqoshada dusha sare (ha noqoto mid dhexdhexaad ah ama mid dibadeed) qayb ka mid ah iftiinka ku dhaca dushaas. Sidoo kale eeg Sharciyada Snell
Refraction
refraction waa isbeddelka jihada uu nalka u socdo marka uu ka gudbo hal warbaahin oo u gudbo mid kale oo cufnaan xagga indhaha ah (marka laga reebo marka uu ku garaaco dusha guud ee labada warbaahin 90 °). Markay iftiinka ka gudubto mid dhif ah una gudubto dhexdhexaad dhexdhexaad ah (tusaale ahaan, hawadu una wareegto dhagax) waxay u foorarsataa dhinaca caadiga ah, taa bedelkeed markay ka gudubto cufnaanta una gudubto dhexdhexaad dhif ah ayay ka laaban tahay ka caadiga ah. Cufnaanta indhaha waa hanti adag oo isku muujisa hoos u dhaca iftiinka. Sidoo kale eeg Sharciyada Snell
index Refractive (RI)
RI waa ratio fudud barbar xawaaraha iftiinka hawada si xawaaraha iftiinka ee dhexdhexaad ah siiyey. calanka loo isticmaalaa lagu qiyaaso index Refractive waa hawada (vacuum adag a); sidaas RI hawada waxaa loo arkaa inay 1.00
metamorphic Regional
recrystallization ee content macdanta dhagaxyada pre-jira marka heerkulku kordhay (700 ° -2000 ° C) iyo cadaadis
cufnaanta Qaraabo
Eeg cuf gaar ah (SG)
wavelengths haraaga
wavelengths haraaga ah waa kuwa wavelengths ma nuugo qalab ah oo isu geeyo in nala siiyo midabka PERC-eived shay ah
Resinous
Eeg luster
Rock
dhagax ka kooban yahay qayb ka macdanta oo ku koray ama wada adkaynayo by hababka kiimikada ama la soo wada addoonsi by kulaylka ama cadaadis
robab
waxaa loola jeedaa in tayada ama baaxad ahaan midabka arkay in widhwidha brilliancy Dhagaxyo weji hufan ee
Schiller
Eeg isdiyaarintiisana
Scintillation
aqrisanin; siintiisa off of gaaban, widhwidha iftiin dhalaalaya oo
Sectile
sectile loola jeedaa awoodda qalab ee loo diiray by mindi la cut a siman
dhagaxyada ku aasan
kuwa ay samaysteen dhismayaasha maaddadu (seddexaad) oo ka soo bilaabmay burburka jireed iyo kiimiko ee dhagxaanta horay u jirtay ee dhulka dushiisa
luul Seed
luul aad u yar (ka yar v. hadhuudh / 2mm qiyaastii.) in ay yihiin dabiici sameeyay unug jilicsan ee mollusk ah iyadoo ay sabab u duulaankii of miraha of ciid, ukunta sabayn oo lacag la'aan ah, dulin ama hay'adaha kale ee shisheeye. luul Seed inta badan aan caadi ahayn oo guri, laakiin markii kuwa wareega dhif ah waxaa laga helaa, waxay kala soo baxay si loogu isticmaalo dahabka. Sidoo kale eeg luul Keshi
nuugista Selective
nuugista xushay iftiinka waa xakamaynta ama nuugista of wavelengths qaar ka dhaco iftiin dhex shay ama ka muuqataa off ay dusha. Midabka of natiijooyinka wax ka haray wavelengths (haraaga ah) in ay gaaraan isha
Sheen (ama schiller)
isdiyaarintiisana waa birqayso ama waajihi (Fidiyay) saamayn milicsiga keena iftiin la muuqataa ka inclusions ama muuqaalada dhismaha gudahood dhagax. Erayga waxaa ka mid ah chatoyancy, asterism, adularescence, aventurescence, opalescence, iridescence (labrodrescence iyo play midabka ee opalka)
Silk (noqoshada)
taxane ah oo cirbadaha barbar wanaagsan (inta badan rutile)
Single Refractive
sidoo kale loo yaqaan isotropic. macdanta oo muujiyaan guryaha indhaha isku jiho Og (tusaale ahaan, dhagaxyo nidaamka cubic iyo wax qaab)
Sharciyada Snell ee refraction
markii ray fudud maraa ka mid dhexdhexaad kale waxaa jira ratio tirsa dhexeeya Culumida ee xagal ee dhacdooyinka iyo Culumida ee xagal ee refraction. ray The dhacdo, ray ah refracted oo caadi ah (meesha ugu of dhacdooyinka) ayaa Og in diyaarad la mid ah. Ratio joogto ah u dhexeeya xagal ee dhacdooyinka iyo refraction laba warbaahinta wax xiriir indhaha la odhan jiray by Snell index ka Refractive (RI)
luul Badda South
luul cultured Rafaa, cultured ee oysters luul ah lacag ay saxaadda ballaciisu yahay ee 12 ama xataa 16mm. Kuwani luul cad weyn kasbadeen magaca South badda sababta oo ah waxay markii hore soo saaray Japan ee Microne-Siicaa, iyo Indonesia. Maanta Jawhar kuwan waxaa ay inta ugu badan laga soo saaro ee Australia iyo Burma, iyadoo Indonesia, Filibiin, Papua New Guinea iyo Thailand sida ilo muhiim ah ka yar. Si aad u taariikhda aan jirin a collection guul macmal xurguftii ah oysters luul ah lacag ay saxaadda, taas oo macnaheedu yahay in sahayda ee oysters hooyada waa kooban iyo qiimaha sida sare
cuf gaar ah (SG)
SG ama cufnaanta qaraabada walxaha ayaa ah isku dheellitirka u dhexeeya culeyska walax iyo culeyska isleeg mugga biyo saafi ah 4 ° C (cufnaanta ugu badan ee biyaha) iyo heerka cadaadiska cimilada. SG waxay la xiriirtaa walxaha kiimikada ee walxaha iyo sidoo kale isku xidhka isku xidhka (atomic atom) ee saamayntiisa kuma koobna oo kaliya culayska atomiga ee qaybaha kala duwan ee walxaha laakiin sidoo kale qaabka atamka la isugu keenayo)
Spectroscope
qalab oo kala sooco ray ah iftiin baa wavelengths ay dastuurka ama midabada spectrum by hab of prism ama diffraction shabag. spectroscope wuxuu kuu ogol yahay mid ay u arkaan taas oo qaybaha gaarka ah (xarriijimo ama guutooyin) ama meelaha (nuugista ballaadhan) iftiinka cad yihiin nuugo gemstone a by faafayaan ama faafo soo wavelengths haraaga ah oo laga kala qaado ama ka muuqataa ka dhagaxa hoos imtixaanka (ma Og dhagaxyo u muujiyaan a spectrum oo aan Og jiitay dhinacyo arkay waa cudurka laakiin guutooyin nuugista waxay muujin kartaa wakiilka midab ama joogitaanka xubno gaar ah)
Splintery
arki jab
dhabanada
dhabanada jeedaa joogto ama dheelitirka ee qaabka of jawharad ee labada meel fool-ka ilaa iyo profile
inclusions Syngenetic
inclusions casriga ah oo ka kooban walxaha kaas oo la soo bandhigay waqti isku mid ah sida crystai ciidanka (tusaale ahaan, cunnooyinka adkaha ah macdanta, cabitaanno ah in godadka iyo dildilaaca bogsiinaya; guutooyin Soon, inclusions dareere,. raad koritaanka sida xuduuddadhulka midabka iyo formation mataanaha Waxaa inta badan waa amar ku bixiyay in intergrowth dhexeeya inclusions syngenetic iyo madarad ciidankii si laba qaado laga yaabaa in xiriir dhismaha maamulaa sharciyada crystallographic
dhagaxyo dardaro
wax soo saarka dardaro leedahay Halabuurka isla kiimikada, qaab-dhismeedka qaaradda iyo guryaha jirka sida ay dhigiisa dabiiciga ah (tusaale ahaan, sumurud dardaro, corundum dardaro, iwm)
Tenacity
kartida ama qalleyf waa iska caabin ah ee jawharad ah in jabiyay ama dhaawac. Waxaa la xiriira awood u si uu u nuugo macdanta naxdinta aan carqalad ah dhismeedka internai. Shuruudaha la kulmay arrintan la xiriira waxaa ka mid ah debcaan, sectile, malleable, dabacsan iyo laastikada
filimada khafiif
viewed hoos iftiinka ka muuqataa kuwan filimada khafiif leeyihiin muuqaalka iridescent ah caadiga ah ee lakabka khafiif ah oo saliid biyo on ama dusha sare Alifana of saabuun xumbo a
Saddex ka mid noqoshada wajiga
dalool a dareere ka buuxo oo ay ku jiraan xumbo iyo madarad
Tone
midab jeedaa fudaydkii qaraabo ama gudcur gartay (haddii of cado ah ama cad madow)
Total milicsiga gudaha
total milicsiga gudaha dhacaa halkaas oo a, ray ee ku dhaco iftiin ka denser ah si dhexdhexaad ah arkitaan xagal badan xagal muhiim weyn waxaa u noqday inuu dhexdhexaad denser halkaas oo Adeeca sharciyada iyo digtoonaan ah
qalleyf
arki kartida
xubno guurka
magacaabi codsatay in ay xubno ka macdan gaar ah oo ay sabab u tahay in ay qaab-dhismeedka qaaradda, saameyn nuugista xushay iftiinka dhagaxyo idiochromatic iyo allochromatic. Waxay yihiin chrome, Cobalt, copper, vanadium, manganese, birta, nickel iyo titanium
gudbiyaan
noqotay (tusaale ahaan, iftiinka) ka mid dhexdhexaad ah in kale; si ay uga saaraan (tusaale, signal a) ama u soo dir (e..g., qof ilaa qof kale)
Transparency
xorriyadda oo iftiinkooda waa loo maray ama lagu kala qaado iyada oo loo marayo dhagax. The kala duwan ee daahfurnaanta la siiyo sida: hufan (TP) wax Xarafka hufan tarjumaysaa iyo nuuga qadar yar oo ah iftiinka dhaco on, laakiin u ogolaanaya in ay ugu dhex mari. wax An viewed marayo dhagaxii u muuqataa cad oo kala duwan. Sub-hufan (S-TP) Xarafka hore lacagta badan iftiinka loo kala qaado iyada oo loo marayo dhagaxa, laakiin kaliya dulmar ee shay oo dhinaca kale oo dhagax ah oo aan la kala sooci karaa. Sub-translucent (S-TL) aqrinaayo qadar aad u yar oo iftiin mari kartaa jawharad ee cidhifyada khafiif ah. Doolaal (0) -ail iftiinka oo ku dhacda gal shay Doolaal waxaa sidoo kale ka muuqataa ama nuugo. iftiinka No maraa wax ka, xitaa at geesaha dhuuban.
ka mid noqoshada Treacle
a kulaylka-ruxruxo ama roiled saamayn-wisps iyo swirls midabka
Twin crystal
crystal ah oo mataano ah waa crystal ah oo ka kooban laba toortaha of crystal isla ama laba ama in ka badan kiristaalo of noocyada la mid ah kaas oo ay leeyihiin xiriir toos ah crystallographic in midkiinba midka kale oo ay wada koray hab symmetrical (eeg mataano xiriir oo mataano interpenetrant)
Laba ka mid noqoshada wajiga
dalool a dareere ka buuxo oo ay ku jiraan xumbo ama crystal a
Ultraviolet (UV)
ultraviolet ka dhigan tahay ka baxsan buluug. Tani kala duwan ee shucaaca bilaabmaa wavelengths in gaaban 400nm iftiinka buluug
dhagaxyo Uniaxial
nidaamka laba geesoodka, trigonal iyo tetragonal crystal waxaa ku yaal hal dhidib oo indhaha ah (jihada hal shaandheyn): macdanta ka tirsan nidaamyadan waxaa loo yaqaan uniaxial (dhagaxyada uniaxial xariiqda optic waxay la mid tahay aasaaska tooska ah ee 'c' axis)
cell Unit
cell unit of dhismeedka madarad oo ka mid yar ee madarad oo weli haysto guryaha caan ku crystal la yaqaan cell unug. hab ee kaas oo unugyada unit waxaa Mire Waqaf oo ay dabiicadda hooyadiis go'aamiso muuqaalka dibadda ee baraf
ka mid noqoshada xijaab
arko mid noqoshada baal
iftiinka muuqdaa
iftiin arki karo waa nooc ka mid ah tamarta iftiimeen oo ku siinayaa asaasmeen dareen ah hortiisa. Milanello kasta oo shucaac electromagnetic in qiyaastii waa inta u dhaxaysa 400nm iyo 700nm waa la arki karo in ay indhaha aadanaha sida nuurka
hallawda
arki luster
Milanello
Milanello ah waxaa lagu qeexaa sida masaafada u dhexeysa laba danbow oo isku xiga oo la ruxruxo in
Waxy
arki luster
iftiinka White
iftiinka cad (iftiinka isku dhafan) ka kooban yahay isku dar ah ku dhowaad siman dhammaan midabada ama wavelengths uu ka samaysan yahay spectrum ee la arki karo (casaan, oranji, jaalle ah, cagaaran, iyo buluug, iyo buluug). Midabka iftiinka kala duwan leh ku xiran tahay Milanello. hirarka Red leeyihiin wavelengths dheer (700 + nm) iyo this cunay dhex spectrum si ay Violet wavelengths, kaas oo ay leeyihiin (400nm-saabsan 1 / 4 dhererka ka rays cas) ugu gaaban
Window
aagga hufan ee adag midab hooseeyo sababa baxsiga iftiinka soo jeeda kaas oo u fasaxaya ka dambeeya dhagaxa in lagu arko (akhri-dhex saamaynta)
HALO Zircon
arko mid noqoshada HALO
striae Soon
arki guutooyin midabka